Medical References

The information provided on this website is derived from over one hundred (100) years of medical research relating to tattoo removal. During that period over six hundred (600) studies have been conducted on the subject of tattoo removal. That’s an average of six (6) studies per year for the last one hundred (100) years. If you live by a medical college you can visit their library or go online and read the study results below, plus many more.



1) D.A. Hudson & R.U Lechtape-Gruter
A Simple Method of Tattoo Removal.
South African Medical Journal; 1990 Dec 15;issue 78 (vol.12):748-9.

2) T.A. Piggot & R.W. Norris
The Treatment of Tattoos with Trichloracetic Acid: Experience with 670 Patients.
British Journal of Plastic Surgery; 1988 Mar; issue 41 (vol.2):112-7.

3) W. Claubaugh
Removal of Tattoos by Superficial Dermabrasion.
Archives of Dermatology; 1968 Nov;98(5):515-21.

4) W. Claubaugh
Tattoo Removal by Superficial Dermabrasion. Five-Year Experience.
Plastic Reconstructive Surgery; 1975 Apr;55(4):401-5.

5) M.D. Shie
A Study of Tattooing and Methods of Removal.
Journal of American Medical Association; 1928; 90:94-96

6) D.B. Apfelberg & G.H. Manchester
Decorative and Traumatic Tattoo Biophysics and Removal.
Clinics in Plastic Surgery; 1987 Apr;14(2):243-51.

7) H. Fogh, H.C. Wulf, T. Poulsen & P. Larsen
Tattoo Removal by Over Tattooing with Tannic Acid.
Journal Dermatology Surgery Oncology; 1989 Oct;15(10):1089-90.

8) E.M. van der Velden, H.B. van der Walle & A.D. Groote
Tattoo Removal: Tannic Acid Method of Variot.
International Journal of Dermatology; 1993 May;32(5):376-80.

9) C.R. Arellano, D.A. Leopold & B.B. Shafiroff
Tattoo Removal: Comparative Study of Six Methods in the Pig.
Plastic Reconstructive Surgery; 1982 Dec;70(6):699-703.

10) W. Cheng
Chemical Extraction Technique for Tattoo Removal.
British Journal of Dermatology; 2004 December; 151: 1282-83


Skin Types Chart

The UK. Food and Drug Administration and the American Academy of Dermatology recognize six skin-type categories. If you have the Skin-types V and VI listed below you should not use skin peels for tattoo removal.

Skin types Sun history Example
I Always burns easily, never tans, extremely sensitive skin Red-headed, freckled, Celtic, Irish-Scots
II Always burns easily, tans minimally, very sensitive skin Fair-skinned, fair-haired, blue-eyed Caucasians
III Sometimes burns tans gradually to light brown, sun-sensitive skin Average-skinned Caucasians, light-skinned Asians or Hispanics
IV Burns minimally always tans to moderate brown, minimally sun-sensitive Mediterranean-type Caucasians, light-skinned African Americans.
V Rarely burns, tans well, sun-insensitive skin Middle Easterners, some Hispanics, African-Americans and Asians
VI Never burns, deeply pigmented, sun-insensitive skin African-Americans